News flash

Draft Program on Climate Change, for your comments (updated March 5, 2019) (short version now available)

 

Why We Prioritize Addressing Climate Change

(Spanish Translation)

The Re-evaluation Counseling Community has recognized the challenge presented by the rapid changing of our climate.  Several years ago, we adopted a goal to help guide us in our work taking on the challenge presented by this situation, and we updated that goal at the 2017 World Conference. Also in 2017, we wrote a Draft Policy statement on Care of the Environment and in 2018, a Draft Program on Climate Change (updated January 29, 2019). The situation continues to change rapidly, and more and more information is becoming available. Here is our appraisal of the current situation, and the research that supports our appraisal, all in support of the Draft Policy and Draft Program.  We hope that you will find this useful as a resource in leading on these issues.

Diane Shisk and Tim Jackins
(updated January 29, 2019)


Distress recordings are the biggest obstacle to solving all of society’s problems. Therefore, because of what we know as RCers, we can play a pivotal role in solving the problems facing humanity. Climate change is one of our biggest problems today.

Climate change calls for immediate good thinking and effective action. Unless our society can dramatically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions within the next several years and then begin removing large amounts of GHG from the atmosphere, dangerously destructive global climate change will escalate. (Climate change is already having a damaging effect on every continent.) While other problems facing humanity are extremely harmful, none (other than the possibility of nuclear war*) pose such an immediate and large-scale threat to humans and all other forms of life. For these reasons, we prioritize addressing climate change in our Communities and in the world.

Indigenous people, poor people, and people of the global majority have been burdened by some of the worst effects of environmental destruction. Climate change impacts all oppressed groups and has become intertwined with their oppression. Ending all oppression is an important part of our work to end the destruction of the environment. Addressing climate change needs to be seen as an important part of each of those struggles. United we can stop and reverse climate change.

Climate Change Is Happening, and There Is Irrefutable Evidence That It Is Caused by Human Activity

The Earth is warming because of a growing accumulation of GHG emissions that have formed a warming blanket around the Earth. The most damaging of these emissions is carbon dioxide (CO2), although other emissions and substances (methane, nitrous oxide, and black carbon, among others) are also damaging and together contribute about 50% of the warming of CO2.[1] Because CO2 takes decades to begin its warming effect, we have not yet started to feel the impact of much of the carbon we’ve already emitted. Human activity is pumping almost 40 billion tons of COinto the atmosphere annually, along with significant amounts of methane (which warms the atmosphere more quickly than CO2) and other GHGs.[2] At this rate, within a decade we will reach levels of GHGs that will cause unprecedented warming and related impacts.[3]

Scientific measurements show that the rise in GHG results primarily from burning fossil fuels. Scientists have measured the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere over time by drilling ice cores in Antarctica. This data shows us that the average level of CO2 in the atmosphere for the past 800,000 years has been between 180 and 260 parts per million (ppm) of CO2—reaching a high of 300 ppm in some periods between ice ages. In 1750, at the start of the Industrial Revolution (when humans started using fossil fuels in large quantities), atmospheric CO2 was at 278 ppm. In 2018 it reached 412 ppm.[4] Most human-caused CO2 emissions (80%) result from burning fossil fuels (coal, oil, gas). Since 1988, more than half of global industrial GHGs can be traced to just 25 corporate and state producers of fossil fuels.[5] Other significant sources of CO2 and methane are industrialized agriculture (including livestock production), fracking of natural gas (through leakage in production), and deforestation (20%).[6] [7]

The planet has warmed by 1.2° Celsius since the start of the industrial revolution.[8] Half of that temperature increase has occurred in the past 35 years, the fastest rate of temperature increase in recorded history. (20 of the 22 warmest years on record have been since 1998; and 2015 to 2018 are the top four.)[9]. The rate of warming now is twice as fast as in the 1950s and 1960s.

Global energy-related CO2 missions are rising after a three year leveling off period, rising 1.6% in 2017 and projected to continue to grow in 2018.[10]

The last time the Earth’s atmosphere was at 400 ppm of CO2 was a few million years ago. The climate was 2°C to 3°C above preindustrial temperatures and sea level was some 15 - 25 meters above modern levels.[11] Current CO2 levels are at 412 ppm.

The damaging results of climate change are already a reality in all parts of the globe, but worse in the tropics and the Arctic. Climate change is causing (a) heat waves, droughts, desertification, and crop loss (a temperature increase means fewer rains, and rains at the wrong times of the year), (b) severe weather events and the consequent habitat damage and flooding (a warmer atmosphere holds more water and results in bigger storms), (c) sea level rise (from melting ice cover) resulting in larger storm surges, erosion of coastline and salinization (destruction by salt) of crop land and coastal forests, (d) increased acidification of the oceans (damaging marine ecosystems), (e) wildfires in increasing number and strength as temperatures rise, habitats gets drier, and the fire season becomes longer, (f) thawing of the Arctic permafrost (releasing stored CO2 and methane into the atmosphere),[12] (g) an increase in diseases and infestations (as warmer temperatures foster a multiplication of disease vectors, such as mosquitos, and pests, and expansion of their habitat), (h) melting of Greenland and Antarctic ice (faster than expected, and with the released fresh water disrupting ocean currents as well as causing sea level rise), (i) melting of glacial ice, resulting in water shortages, and (j) species extinction (up to 30% of species are at risk at 1°C of warming[13], which we have already exceeded). As the global temperature rises, these problems are multiplying in number and intensity.[14]

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, October 2018 report “Global Warming at 1.5°C.” http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/ This important report (IPCC Report 2018) warns that global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C between 2030 and 2052 if emissions continue to increase at the current rate. It finds that limiting warming to 1.5°C with limited overshoot (going above 1.5°C and then working to reduce warming) is possible but would require rapid and far-reaching transitions in energy, land, urban and infrastructure (including transport and buildings), and industrial systems. “These systems transitions are unprecedented in terms of scale, but not necessarily in terms of speed, and imply deep emissions reductions in all sectors, a wide portfolio of mitigation options and a significant upscaling of investments in those options.” If we can limit warming to 1.5°C (rather than 2°C) by 2100, we would see fewer extremes of life-threatening heat, drought, and precipitation, less sea level rise, and fewer species lost.[15] Details follow below.

These climate changes can be reversed. They can be reversed by a rapid transition away from fossil fuels, by reducing consumption and conserving electricity, by improving land-based storage of GHG, and by changing our diet and agricultural practices—all attainable goals, but we must act now.

Climate Change Disproportionately Impacts Frontline Nations and Communities

The harshest effects of climate change fall on people living in poverty (mostly People of the Global Majority and Indigenous people in countries long targeted by genocide, imperialism, and colonialism—called “Frontline Nations”) (map showing this here)[16]. Hundreds of millions of people are currently struggling under the effects of climate change, such as food and water scarcity, extreme storms, and displacement.[17] The World Health Organization estimates 150,000 lives are lost every year due to climate change.[18] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that since 2008, 22.5 million people have been displaced by climate-related or extreme weather events.[19] By 2060, about 1.4 billion people could become climate change refugees.[20] By 2050, a World Bank study shows that about 143 million people in three of the world’s most vulnerable regions (Africa, Latin America, South Asia) could be forced to migrate within their own country due to climate change, specifically water stress, crop failure, and sea level rise.[21]

The frequency of climate-related disasters is projected to triple from 2009 to 2030. Disasters of equivalent strength kill between 12 and 45 times more people in poorer countries than in wealthy ones.[22] Declines in agriculture productivity of between 15 and 30% are predicted by 2080 in Africa, South Asia, and Central America.[23]

Under-nutrition is identified as the largest health impact of climate change in the 21st century. A 6% decline in global wheat yields and 10% decline in rice yields is expected for each additional 1°C rise in global temperature, with substantial impacts on under-nutrition and stunting in food insecure or poor regions. An additional 7.5 million children are expected to be stunted by 2030, 4 million of whom are expected to be affected by severe stunting, increasing to 10 million children by 2050.[24]

Poor people are disproportionately affected not only because they are often more exposed and more vulnerable to climate-related shocks, they also have fewer resources and receive less support from family, community, the financial system, and social safety nets to prevent, cope, and adapt. Climate change will worsen these shocks and stresses, forcing more than 100 million people into extreme poverty by 2030.[25]

Mitigating the impact of climate change on these vulnerable populations and nations is possible but requires action sooner rather than later.

The Effects of Climate Change Are Increasing

Each of the following effects increases over time. Warming temperatures have caused more than a 40% reduction in Arctic sea ice since 1978. The Arctic region is warming at a rate twice that of the global average[26], with 2017 setting a record low for maximum ice extent.[27] Greenland ice sheet saw nearly a five-fold increase in melt rate between the mid-1990s and 2011. In 2014 scientists found Greenland had doubled its rate of ice loss since 2009.[28]  And by 2018, the rate of melting from the Antarctic ice sheet had accelerated threefold in the last five years.[29] Average global sea level is now rising approximately 1.3 inches every 10 years,[30] with a projected rise of between 2.6 and 6.6 feet by 2100.[31] Thresholds for irreversible, multi-millennial loss of the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets may occur at 1.5 or 2°C global warming. The frequency of severe coastal flooding is expected to double in the next decade.[32]

Our oceans absorb more than 90% of the planetary temperature increase. But this buffering effect is weakening and may not last much longer, leading to more atmospheric heat.[33] The rising ocean temperatures (a new record was set in 2018)[34] [and sea levels and endangers coastal inhabitants and marine ecosystems such as coral reefs and plankton. Oceans also absorb 33% of CO2 emissions, which leads to acidification that further endangers ecosystems.[35]

Heat Waves impacted all parts of the world in 2018, causing death, droughts, and wildfires. Global warming is overtaking natural variability as the main driver of extreme heat waves.

Climate changes causes migration. With the 2°C rise in temperature predicted by 2050, scientists anticipate more than 140 million additional refugees on the move annually. With migration comes suffering, including human trafficking.[36]

Climate change causes war. The IPCC warns, “Human security will be progressively threatened as the climate changes. Climate change is an important factor threatening human security through: 1. undermining livelihoods, 2. compromising culture and identity, 3. increasing migration that people would rather have avoided, and 4. challenging the ability of states to provide the conditions necessary for human security. Researchers estimate that at 2°C, climate change will endanger 2.7 billion people in 46 countries by fueling violent conflict.[37]

Tipping points[38] could multiply damaging effects. Difficult to measure factors, called “tipping points,” could push “global temperatures past certain thresholds triggering abrupt, unpredictable and potentially irreversible changes that have massively disruptive and large-scale impacts.[39]” For example, when Arctic sea ice melts, we’re left with more ocean water whose darkness absorbs more of the sun’s heat, therefore contributing to warming. This has caused the Arctic region to warm at twice the rate of the planet as a whole.[40]

It is not too late to reverse these effects. By reducing carbon emissions, planetary warming will, over time, stop and slowly reverse itself. Ice sheets and glaciers will reestablish themselves, atmospheric and ocean temperatures will drop, the seas will recede, and weather patterns will stabilize.

What We Can and Must Do: Stop Fossil Fuel Emissions to Limit Temperature Rise

The Paris Agreement stated that temperature rise should be kept to well below 2°C (making all efforts to limit it to 1.5°) to avoid the most drastic, life-threatening global climate change. (There was almost unanimous agreement among the scientific[41] and international[42] community on this point in 2015.) To reach this goal, global emissions must peak by the year 2020 at the latest, and we must begin drawing CO2 out of the atmosphere.[43] If commitments made under the Paris Accord are met, emissions would still be rising in 2030.[44] The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated that we are most likely headed toward an increase of 3.7° to 4.8°C by 2100 unless we undertake aggressive measures to reduce emissions (i.e. current commitments under the Paris Agreement are insufficient.).[45] Newer research states there is a 50% probability of 2.4 - 2.6°C warming in the near term (2050) and 4.1–5 °C warming by 2100.[43]

The IPCC 2018 Report states that to keep warming to 1.5°C requires reducing emissions by about 45% relative to 2010 levels by 2030 and reaching net zero (the point at which the amount of carbon released to the atmosphere is balanced by the amount removed) by about 2050.  To hold warming to below 2°C, emissions must decline by about 20 percent by 2030 and reach net zero by about 2075. Essentially, efforts need to be roughly tripled for the 2°C scenario and increased five-fold for 1.5°C.[46]

This requires a phase out of fossil fuel use by mid-century, releasing no more than 353 gigatons of CO2 between now and then.[47] (Coal mines and oil and gas wells already in production contain 942 gigatons of CO2.) Other emissions must also be reduced significantly.[48] If we had begun in 2015, this would have required just over 6% carbon pollution reduction annually. If we wait until 2020 it will require 15% annual reduction.[49]

This all must happen applying principles of equity and just transition. Those who have benefitted the most from fossil fuel use (the Global North and the global owning class) are most able to bear the costs of the transition and should do so. Frontline Nations will need international support to develop low carbon energy and pay for adaptation, loss and damage from climate change, and just transition.

Ninety-six percent (96%) of electricity will need to be low carbon by 2050. This would require $3.5 trillion in energy-sector investments on average each year until 2050.[50] Renewable energy contributed 40% of the total increase of world energy power generation in 2016.[51]

Fracked natural gas was once seen as a “bridge fuel” to renewables because fewer COemissions are released. But when methane emissions are included (there is significant leakage during production), the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas is significantly larger than that of conventional natural gas, coal, and oil. (There are other significant and harmful effects to the local environment as well.[52] Because methane is a more potent GHG than CO2, but only lasts for a decade or so in the atmosphere, reducing methane emissions has an almost immediate impact of reducing warming.

Nearly 60% of global CO2 emissions come from the world’s 6 largest economies—the United States, China, Russia, India, the European Union, and Japan—and must be reduced immediately. (16% of the emissions are from the United States alone, while the U.S. population is only 5% of the global population.)[53] Each of these countries (except Russia) has signed the Paris Accord and committed to reduce GHG emissions and some good progress is happening. However, more reduction is needed to meet the stated goals. (The Trump administration is withdrawing the U.S. from the Paris Accord. Ten states, nine tribes, and 280 U.S. cities and counties express support for the Accord.[54])

Renewables can replace much of our fossil fuel use. The cost of renewable energy is now comparable to that of fossil fuel, and massive development of renewable energy should be supported. Globally 80% of energy has come from burning fossil fuels since the 1990s, and the percentage is not decreasing.[55] While each year the use of new and renewable sources of energy (solar, wind, and hydropower) increases,[56] it is not increasing fast enough to keep up with rising global energy demand.[57]

Nuclear power is not an option. Nuclear power is expensive and unsafe, we have no safe way to store waste, and uranium mining is dangerous and polluting.  But nuclear power provides 14% of the world’s energy (75% in France, 20% in the U.S.), with many reactors to be retired in the near future. If reactors are replaced with fossil fuel plants, emissions will rise significantly.[58]

These are achievable goals if we act now. Organizations worldwide are working toward these ends. By delaying, we increase the magnitude of future efforts we must make.

What We Can and Must Do: Stop Other Emissions to Limit Temperature Rise

Agriculture and land use (mostly deforestation) are responsible for about a quarter of human emissions.  Rising demand for meat and biofuel is the main cause of deforestation, which causes tremendous emissions of carbon dioxide. Reducing consumption of livestock protein[59] in the Global North and putting strong limits on biofuel can greatly reduce pressure on forests.

There are also many ways to make farm and grazing land more productive with agroecological[60] techniques, which can also reduce pressure on forests. Methods of “carbon farming” not only avert and sequester large quantities of GHG, they also are diversely productive and more resilient, reducing risk for farmers.[61]

Ecosystems store tremendous amounts of carbon. It is important to protect and restore these natural “carbon sinks” (such as oceans, forests, and wetlands), with full engagement of, inclusion of, and leadership by the people who inhabit that place. When indigenous and tribal people have sovereign rights to their forest land, emissions from deforestation and degradation are greatly reduced.

A global commission calls on the world to make a “comprehensive shift” in its diet toward plant-based foods to meaningfully reduce GHG.[62]

Food waste contributes 8% of global emissions, from the 30% of food wasted globally across the food chain.[63] Reducing food waste also avoids deforestation of forests for additional farmland.

What We Can and Must Do: Capture and . Store Emissions to Limit Temperature Rise

Carbon and methane sinks—natural ecosystems on land and in the ocean that absorb or hold GHG emissions, specifically plants, forests, soil, and the ocean itself—are crucially important. Today more than half of human-caused carbon emissions are captured by these natural ecosystems, keeping the emissions out of the atmosphere. Undisturbed forest landscapes absorb more than 25% of the CO2 in the atmosphere.[64]

We must preserve these ecosystems and create additional ones—by stopping deforestation, planting millions of trees, and adopting regenerative agricultural practices that trap rather than release carbon from the soil.[65] Most models for keeping temperature increase below 2°C predict we will “overshoot” 2°C, and then have to rapidly reduce emissions by drawing them out of the atmosphere. Natural sinks are inadequate for this; we will need to develop a new sink with the GHG storage capacity of the ocean.[66]

What We Can and Must Do: End War and Military Conflicts

War not only causes tremendous loss of life, it also unleashes environmental destruction—destroying land; contaminating soil, water, and air; speeding up desertification; and causing large scale migration. In addition, militaries use huge amounts of fossil fuels. For example, the U.S. military uses 100 million barrels of oil a year.[67] Significantly more fossil fuels are consumed in war and conflicts than in peacetime.  Oil stockpiles are often targets, releasing huge quantifies of CO2 when burned. Many wars have been and are being fought over control of fossil fuel resources.[68]

What We Can and Must Do: Build a Worldwide Movement

Huge changes are required to end climate change, and to be successful we need a movement of hundreds of millions of people who demand the changes. No one can be left out. The movement must include the movements to end racism, genocide, poverty, sexism, and war. It must include the labor movement, students, parents, and religious and lay organizations—every group working for human liberation, justice, and the end of environmental destruction. 

Climate change is illuminating the global harm caused by the actions of a profit-driven society, demonstrating that it is in everyone’s interest to work toward a society that sustains all life and rejects exploitation of people and our planet. 

There is worldwide acceptance of this goal.

What We Can and Must Do: End Profit as the Basis of Our Economies

Our economic systems have driven for growth and profit with little regard for people, other life forms, and the Earth. They keep people struggling for survival. They rely on oppression to keep people divided from each other and therefore unable to unite in working for change. Climate change is exposing the destructiveness of these systems in new and unprecedented ways. As people see and face how destructive these systems are, they understand the need for a system that supports all people without exploiting them or damaging the planet. Such a system is in the interest of all people, including those now carrying out the current mistaken and destructive policies (and it is in the interest of their children).

Despite large growth in the renewable energy sector, global energy consumption has remained about 80% fossil fuel since the 1990s, because of expanding economic growth.  Planned for private investment in renewables is “not yet consistent with the transition to a low-carbon energy system envisaged in the Paris Climate Agreement” because of the lack of profit in low carbon solutions.[69]

GHG emissions can be significantly reduced by conserving energy and improving energy efficiency. 

More people are questioning our economic system and its exploitation of people and the planet. We can develop new economies

What We Must Do: Support International and Local Efforts

The United Nations has played a leading role in addressing climate change globally. The Paris Agreement, which entered into force in November 2016, is the first global climate change agreement. Signatory countries each pledged to reduce emissions and report on their progress. But the Paris Agreement is not binding and the total pledged reductions if fully implemented, would still allow a 2.7° - 3.5°C rise, which would be catastrophic. Additional reductions are needed.[70] The agreement is also widely criticized as conservative and misleading, downplaying more damaging outcomes.[71] Nonetheless, the Agreement is a global acknowledgement of the reality and destructiveness of climate change and an important step toward resolving it, so long as we bring temperature rise back to 1.5C° or lower.

Wealthy nations are most able to help Frontline Nations adapt to climate change and gain access to renewable energy. Much of the wealth of the wealthy nations comes from their exploiting the resources of Frontline Nations. The Green Climate Fund was established by the United Nations in 2011 to raise $100 billion from the wealthy nations per year by 2020, but to date only $10.3 billion has been pledged.[72] Significant funds must be raised and allocated to developing nations, yet lack of adequate support for measures of finance and adaptation for Frontline nations continues to be a major stumbling block at the negotiations and was a major issue at COP24 in Poland. A key finding of the IPCC October 2018 Report is that without a dramatic increase in the provision of climate finance, the possibility of limiting warming to 2°C  (to say nothing of 1.5°C) will irretrievably slip away.

Over the next 15 years, the world will require about $90 trillion in new infrastructure of an orderly transition to a low carbon, resilient global economy, most of it in developing and middle income countries.[73] With adequate support, people in some places can take measures that will enable them to build a resilient and sustainable community and stay on their land.

Private investment for the public good has not materialized (there is no profit so “smart money” goes elsewhere). The majority of investment in renewables is driven by public funds, not private.[74]

IF WE STUMBLE

“If the global mean temperatures warm by more than 2°C, risks to ecosystems and livelihoods will surpass tolerable levels. It is likely that humans will no longer be able to inhabit many previously hospitable regions. We will suffer from increasingly variable and extreme weather conditions with disastrous consequences that are already occurring in stark preview. With present warming already at 1°C, we are hurtling towards an irreversible climate crisis.”[75]

While the situation is grave and big effects are unavoidable, it is not too late to turn the tide to avoid the worst effects of climate change. The sooner we can take needed action, the less harm will result and the sooner we and our planet will recover.

What We in RC Can Do

Most of us are numb, scared, and detached about climate change. A starting point is to connect with and discharge the early hurts underlying our distresses (the heartbreak, fears, and defeats). It is important to do this if we are to take on climate change as part of our lives. We can go back to and discharge these early hurts as we challenge their hold on us in the present. We can learn from what worked to change society in the past, and we can find new solutions. We can come together to discharge and think freshly about a new course for our society, using the 2017 Goal on COE to guide us. We can create the conditions for the changes to occur. We can organize and take action in ways that we haven’t before. 

We can and will develop a clear policy and program that is understood to be in everyone’s interest. We can organize enough people that we can effectively say “no” to the present course. We will try things and learn from all of our efforts as we work to develop our program. A Draft Policy for Care of the Environment is now on the RC website at: https://www.rc.org/draftpolicycoe

*Recent events raise the possibility of nuclear proliferation, reversing a long-standing trend away from the possibility of nuclear war.


 [1] NASA: Global Climate Change, "Vital Signs of the Future,"
http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/; Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate. Change,” http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_summary-for-policymakers.pdf

[2] Global Carbon Project, http://www.globalcarbonproject.org/

[3] “Ice melt, sea level rise and superstorms: evidence from paleoclimate data, climate modeling, and modern observations that 2 ◦C global warming is highly dangerous,” https://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/15/20059/2015/acpd-15-20059-2015.pdfhttps://www.carbonbrief.org/analysis-how-much-carbon-budget-is-left-to-limit-global-warming-to-1-5c 

[4] The Independent, “Carbon dioxide levels in Earth's atmosphere reach 'highest level in 800,000 years,” May 5, 2018, https://www.independent.co.uk/environment/carbon-dioxide-concentration-atmosphere-highest-level-800000-years-mauna-loa-observatory-hawaii-a8337921.html

[5] The Carbon Majors Database, 2017, https://b8f65cb373b1b7b15feb-c70d8ead6ced550b4d987d7c03fcdd1d.ssl.cf3.rackcdn.com/cms/reports/documents/000/002/327/original/Carbon-Majors-Report-2017.pdf?1499691240 

[6]  Boden, T., G. Marland, and B. Andres, 2012: Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1751-2009. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ftp/ndp030/global.1751_2009.ems

[7] “Methane leaks from U.S. gas fields dwarf government estimates,” https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05517-y, June 2018

[8]  "Global temperatures have already risen 1.2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels," http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/overview

[9] World Meteorological Organization, "State of the Climate Report 2018," 
https://newatlas.com/wmo-2018-state-climate-report/57458/

[10]  World Energy Outlook, 2018,
https://webstore.iea.org/download/summary/190?fileName=English-WEO-2018-ES.pdf

[11] Romm, J. Climate Change: What everyone needs to know

[12] “Global Warming Permafrost Study,” https://insideclimatenews.org/news/27022017/global-warming-permafrost-study-melt-canada-siberia

[13] IPCC, “Climate Change 2014, Mitigation of Climate Change,” 178

[14] NASA: Global Climate Change, "Vital Signs of the Future," http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

[15] IPCC Report 2018, http://www.ipcc.ch/report/sr15/

[16] “Map of countries most likely to survive climate change,” http://winewaterwatch.org/2018/02/new-map-reveals-which-countries-are-most-likely-to-survive-climate-change/

[17] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2014, Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability,” 12  http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg2/ar5_wgII_spm_en.pdf

[18] World Health Organization, Health and Environmental Linkages Initiative, https://www.who.int/heli/risks/climate/climatechange/en/

[19] “If You Really Want to Curb Migration, Get Serious About Climate Change,” https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/29/opinion/sunday/immigration-climate-change-trump.html

[20] "Rising seas could result in 2 billion refugees by 2100,” Cornell University, http://news.cornell.edu/stories/2017/06/rising-seas-could-result-2-billion-refugees-2100

[21] “Expect Tens of Millions of Internal Climate Migrants,” World Bank says, https://www.carbonbrief.org/expect-tens-of-millions-of-internal-climate-migrants-by-2050-says-world-bank

[22] Oxfam, “Suffering the Science: People, Poverty, and Climate” Change, https://www.oxfam.org/en/research/suffering-science

[23] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), “Climate Change 2014,” https://archive.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/syr/AR5_SYR_FINAL_All_Topics.pdf

[24] “Climate Change,” World Bank, http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/overview

[25] “Shock Waves: Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty,” World Bank Group. 2016.
https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22787/9781464806735.pdf, p.2

[26] NOAA, “Arctic Report Card, Update for 2017,” https://www.arctic.noaa.gov/Report-Card/Report-Card-2017/ArtMID/7798/ArticleID/685/Executive-Summary

[27] “We’re witnessing the fastest decline in Arctic sea ice in at least 1,500 years,” https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2017/12/12/16767152/arctic-sea-ice-extent-chart

[28] Romm, J. Climate Change: What everyone needs to know

[29] “Antarctic ice melting faster than ever, studies show,” The Guardian, June 13, 2018, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/jun/13/antarctic-ice-melting-faster-than-ever-studies-show 

[30] NASA: Global Climate Change, "Vital Signs of the Future," http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/

[31] "Climate Change in the Pacific Islands," U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
https://www.fws.gov/Pacific/Climatechange/changepi.html#SeaLevelRise

 [32] “Sea Level Rise will Double Coastal Flood Risk Worldwide,” The Guardian, May 18, 2017, 
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/may/18/sea-level-rise-double-coastal-flood-risk-worldwide

[33] “How Long Can Oceans Continue To Absorb Earth’s Excess Heat?,” http://e360.yale.edu/features/how_long_can_oceans_continue_to_absorb_earths_excess_heat

[34] "State of the Climate: How the World Warmed in 2018, Carbon Brief," https://www.carbonbrief.org/state-of-the-climate-how-world-warmed-2018?utm_campaign=Carbon%20Brief%20Daily%20Briefing&utm_medium=email&utm_source=Revue%20newsletter

[35] NASA Infographic, http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/infographics/infographic.view.php?id=11298

[36] World Bank report, "Groundswell: Preparing for Internal Climate Migration," https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/29461 

[37] Oxfam International, Suffering the Science, i-ii

[38] Tipping points are points at which positive feedback loops would trigger additional warming

[39] American Association for the Advancement of Science, “What We Know,” http://whatweknow.aaas.org/get-the-facts/; Klein, This Changes Everything, 1 

[40] Romm, J., Climate Change: What everyone needs to know; NOAA’s annual Arctic report card, December 12, 2017.

[41] “The world's biggest gamble,” Johan Rokström and others,
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000392/full

[42] United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Paris Accord, 2015

[43] “2020 The Climate Turning Point,” http://www.mission2020.global/2020%20The%20Climate%20Turning%20Point.pdf

[44] “Setting the Path Toward 1.5°C,”  civilsocietyreview.org/organisations2016

[45] IPCC, “Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change,” 8,
http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_summary-for-policymakers.pdf 

[46] UN Environment, Emissions Gap Report 2018, Executive Summary, https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/26879/EGR2018_ESEN.pdf?sequence=10

[47] Bill McKibben, "Recalculating the Climate Math," in The Republic

[48] “World's biggest gamble,” Johan Rokström and others, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000392/full

[49] Hansen, et.al., “Target atmospheric CO2, Where should humanity aim?”; Hansen, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/two-degree-global-warming-limit-is-called-a-prescription-for-disaster/

[50] International Energy Agency report, 2017, reported in Deep energy transformation needed by 2050 to limit rise in global temperature

[51] “British Petroleum report: Global Renewable Energy," http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-world-energy/renewable-energy.html

[52] “Methane emissions and climatic warming risk from hydraulic fracturing and shale gas development: implications for policy”; http://www.eeb.cornell.edu/howarth/publications/f_EECT-61539-perspectives-on-air-emissions-of-methane-and-climatic-warmin_100815_27470.pdf

[53] U.S. EPA, “Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data,”
https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data

[54]  We Are Still In, https://www.wearestillin.com

[55] International Energy Agency,
https://www.iea.org/newsroom/news/2016/august/iea-data-shows-global-energy-production-and consumption-continue-to-rise.html

[56] “Renewables Status Report,” http://www.ren21.net/ 

[57] https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/12/climate/global-energy-forecast.html

[58]  Union of Concerned Scientists, "Should we subsidize nuclear power to fight climate change?," https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/should-we-subsidize-nuclear-power-to-fight-climate-change/December 2018; "Nuclear Power and Global Warming," https://www.ucsusa.org/nuclear-power/nuclear-power-and-global-warming#.XD-2hM9Kgq8, September 2018

[59] Livestock production produces less food per hectare or acre than food plants. However, in some areas like dry grasslands, livestock production can be the most productive form of food production available.

[60] Agricultural practices that don’t sacrifice people or ecosystems, such as growing different types of crops together.

[61] Drawdown, The Most Comprehensive Plan Ever Proposed to Reverse Global Warming, ed. Paul Hawken, 2017

[62] https://insideclimatenews.org/news/16012019/global-food-agriculture-revolution-eat-lancet-commission-climate-change-health-nutrition-report-less-meat

[63] “The Climate Impact of the Food in the Back of your Fridge,” Washington Post, July 31,2018, citing U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization

[64] https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/27/climate/tropical-trees-deforestation.html

[65] Toensmeier, The Carbon Farming Solution

[66] “World's biggest gamble,” Johan Rokström and others, 
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2016EF000392/full

[67] The U.S. Military and Oil, Union of Concerned Scientists, https://www.ucsusa.org/clean_vehicles/smart-transportation-solutions/us-military-oil-use.html#.XEYRjM9KjOQ

[68] "7 Places Where Fossil Fuels are Fueling Conflict," Mother Jones, https://www.motherjones.com/politics/2014/07/7-places-where-oil-fueling-conflict/

[69] International Energy Agency, World Energy Investment 2016iea.org

[70] Climate Action Tracker, http://climateactiontracker.org/assets/publications/briefing_papers/CAT_Temp_Update_COP21.pdf

[71] “What Lies Beneath,”  https://www.breakthroughonline.org.au/whatliesbeneath

[72] Green Climate Fund, Contributors,
http://www.greenclimate.fund/partners/contributors/resources-mobilized

[73] World Bank, “Climate Change,”   http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/climatechange/overview

[74] https://mronline.org/2019/01/03/when-green-doesnt-grow/, IEA, Re-powering Markets, 18 February 2016, iea.org

[75] The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2014)


Last modified: 2019-02-27 01:24:10+00